The Invariance of Rough Kelley Spaces by Rough Proper Mappings


  • Heyam Khazaal Hassan, Noor Riyadh Kareem, Ameer Al-Abayechi


 The notion of a Kelley space is a convenient category of spaces for homotopy theory and algebraic topology. The main object here be to introduce two new definitions by using the concept of the rough set; called a rough Kelley space and a rough proper mapping. Moreover, this motivates us to generate the basic new concepts for these innovative definitions. In this paper, rough topological properties are used to study the relation between rough Kelley space and certain other types of spaces. The rough closed and rough open hereditary properties are investigated. Added to, we illustrate the invariance and covariance of this type of space by rough proper mappings.




How to Cite

Noor Riyadh Kareem, Ameer Al-Abayechi, H. K. H. (2022). The Invariance of Rough Kelley Spaces by Rough Proper Mappings. Mathematical Statistician and Engineering Applications, 71(3s3), 130–141. Retrieved from